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Pharmaceutical compounding is an essential component in pharmacy practice allowing pharmacists to provide dosage forms or strengths that are commercially unavailable. Medications compounded for patient-specific needs contribute to personalized medicine. Extemporaneous compounding provided by pharmacies overcomes the market shortage of these therapeutic products. The aim of this study is to investigate and characterize the prevalence, characteristics, and determinants of extemporaneous compounding in Jordanian pharmacies.


This study was based on a cross-sectional questionnaire and included 431 randomly selected pharmacies in the twelve governorates of the country. Data were collected via face to face interviews of pharmacists who voluntarily and verbally responded to the questions.


Results revealed that 223 (51.7%) of the surveyed pharmacies practiced extemporaneous compounding. The main reason for not providing extemporaneous compounding services was lack of prescription orders for compounded preparations (53.8%). The second reason was lack of the equipment and supplies necessary for compounding (24.4%). Extemporaneous compounding prescriptions were mainly issued by dermatologists (98.2%); dermatological indication was the most common of all extemporaneous compounded prescriptions. The main reason for requesting compounded medications was the lack of a commercially available product (87.9%). The vast majority of the compounded dosage forms were creams (99.6) and ointments (91.5), followed by solutions (23.3%). Only 5 (2.2%) of the studied compounding pharmacies prepared sterile products. The major sources for compounding protocols were the physician order (94.2%), and ‘in-house’ protocols (44.8%). However, the main resource for estimating compounded medications expiration date was information based on pharmacist’s experience (57.8%) and the physician’s order (53.4%).


Extemporaneous compounding is a common element of pharmaceutical care. Topical preparations are the most commonly compounded products. Finding from this study suggest that there is a need for standardizing the compounded product formularies, product quality testing, and improving the consistency in estimation of an expiration date of compounded products.


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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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