Inhaled aztreonam lysine: an evidence-based review

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Introduction: Chronic airway infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) is linked with progressive loss of pulmonary function and is the primary cause of mortality. Treatment regimens have generally focused on the use of chronic antibiotic therapy to target Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), a major pathogen associated with a decline in FEV1%. Specifically, inhaled antibiotic therapy provides high antibiotic sputum concentrations and decreases bacterial burden.

Areas covered: This article describes the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, microbiology and safety of aztreonam lysine (AZLI, Cayston), an inhaled antibiotic indicated for use in CF patients with PA. Articles were identified using MEDLINE (1966 – June 13, 2013) and EMBASE (1947 – June 13, 2013). Abstracts from the annual meeting (2011 – 2012) of the North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference were searched to identify additional publications.

Expert opinion: AZLI is an additional product that can be used in the management of CF and will likely play a major role in the suppression of PA. Clinical trials have demonstrated improvements in pulmonary function and patient reported symptoms. AZLI may therefore be used as an alternative to traditional inhaled antibiotics in patients with moderate-to-severe CF and PA colonization. Further investigation is warranted into use of AZLI in mild lung disease and for PA eradication.


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