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Background: Simulation-based counselling using standardised patients (SPs) provide pharmacy students an authentic approach to training; limited data exists regarding student performance using immediate feedback approaches.

Aims: To compare grades of students receiving immediate feedback verses (vs.) delayed feedback.

Methods: A pre-trial assessment of student perceptions and an unblinded randomised trial comparing immediate and delayed feedback. Third year pharmacy students (n=153) counselled SPs in four clinical “experiences”; student grades were the primary outcome. Student t-test and repeated measures were used to compare grades between groups and grades over time.

Results: During pre-trial surveys 50% of students preferred immediate feedback, 22% delayed, and 28% had no preference. There was no significant differences in overall student grades between groups (88.4% immediate vs. 86.6% delayed, p=0.7) or in grades over time (p=0.276).

Conclusions: Although more students preferred immediate feedback, overall grades did not differ based on method of feedback.


This article was originally published in Pharmacy Education, 2017; 17 (1) 322 - 328. It can also be viewed on the publisher's website:

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