Document Type


Publication Date



In lieu of an abstract, here is the article's first paragraph:

Breast cancer is the most fatal form of cancer for female population worldwide. National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimates 226,870 females and 2,190 males to be diagnosed with breast cancer in the United States by the end of 2012. The estimated death toll for this year includes 39,510 females and 410 males, as reported by NCI. Statistics state that 1 in every 8 females will be diagnosed with breast cancer during her lifetime. These alarming numbers have provoked a large number of scientists to contribute towards the fight against breast cancer. Today there are various tools available for females to protect them from breast cancer. Mammography serves as an efficient tool in screening and catching such cases early enough for improved treatment, while surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy provide a strong line of treatment to breast cancer patients. Cancer patients are often subjected to a combination of such therapies, leading to cumulative adverse effects accompanied with the treatment. Addressing the growing number of breast cancer cases, the adverse effects associated with current therapies and the risk of having a relapse after undergoing extensive conventional therapy, researchers are now looking forward for a breast cancer vaccine [1-3].




This article is also available through the publisher's webpage.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Additional Files