Nanovesicular Carrier Systems for Ophthalmic Drug Delivery

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Book Chapter

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Ophthalmic drug delivery systems include a range of pharmaceutical dosage forms capable of either topical or systemic drug delivery. Nanovesicular drug delivery systems have been explored extensively for various such ophthalmic applications. Drug delivery using the nanovesicular systems requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the eye to determine the barriers and pathways. A good vesicular system is able to utilize these pathways and cross the barriers efficiently to deliver drugs to either topical or systemic tissues. Nanovesicular systems offer several advantages including good permeability, prolonged residence/contact time, sustained release profiles, easy administration, and are often patient compliant. Liposomes, niosomes, pharmacosomes, and spanlastics are some of the frequently studied nanovesicular drug delivery systems for ophthalmic applications. Multiple commercial ophthalmic liposomal products are available; however, many more are still being evaluated and are pending clinical trials. Formulation and development of these vesicular delivery systems has evolved in the past few decades to resolve issues related to vesicular aggregation, collapse of the vesicular system, and toxicity concerns. Approaches such as surface modification to avoid aggregation and use of cyclodextrin polymers for enhanced drug loading and stability are some of the examples. Overall, nanovesicles for ophthalmic drug delivery are a promising approach to deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drug candidates efficiently.



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