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Grading is one of the least liked, least understood and least considered aspects of teaching. After years of work, we have developed a grading system that is quite different from traditional and reformed approaches to grading and which meaningfully incorporates and integrates the collection of evidence, the evaluation of evidence, and the reporting of judgments about that evidence. This system satisfies the requirements of good grading system and answers many of the problems faced by more traditional methods by substantially changing the way in which grade information is aggregated, resulting in a final course grade that aligns qualitative evaluation with course learning objectives and carries direct qualitative meaning with respect to the course learning objectives.




This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an article published in Journal of Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 2007 © Taylor & Francis, available online at:

Final version published as:

Green, K. & Emerson, W. A. (2007). A new framework for grading. Journal of Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 32(4): 495-511. doi: 10.1080/02602930600896571.

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