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Authentic, ethical and transformational leadership in 21st century business leaders is needed. This research posits that ethical, authentic and transformational leaders are more effective, that there are incremental improvements in a leader’s effectiveness for each of these leadership qualities, and that transformational leadership moderates the impact of the leader’s authentic and ethical leadership on the leader’s outcomes. Analysis shows that authentic, ethical and transformational leadership behaviors make incremental independent contributions to explain leader effectiveness. The study did not find support for transformational leadership as a moderator of the relationships between authentic and ethical leadership behaviors and a leader’s effectiveness.


This article was published in the Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics in 2016.

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