The Review

A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Starting in 2023, 3690 and The Review have combined to form Soaring: A Journal of Undergraduate Research. New submissions now being accepted!

The Review (formerly The Undergraduate Review) was a journal featuring students’ scholarly research. Published by the Honors Program at St. John Fisher University, the Review featured the work of Fisher's undergraduate students representing any discipline.

Browse all issues of The Review

Current Volume: Volume 23 (2022)

Editors' Note

Along with the editorial board, we are pleased to present the 2022 edition of The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Research and Scholarship. This volume of The Review presents a diverse selection of research written by undergraduate students at St. John Fisher College. This prestigious journal allows us to highlight the impressive efforts of the selected writers and their continuous fervor for learning and education of their audiences.

While the selection process for publication is often difficult, as many of the submissions exceed expectations, each was thoroughly discussed and contemplated with our team of reviewers. After much deliberation, and repeated evaluation of over 20 candidates, we determined which of these are considered to be the most thought-provoking for the reader to experience. We are more than appreciative for the commitment these authors have to their work and commend them for their dedication.

We extend our sincerest gratitude to the members of the Editorial Board for their relentless diligence and their substantial contribution to the creation of this edition. To our advisor, Fionnuala Regan, we would like to show our appreciation. This volume would not have been successful without her guidance. Lastly, we would like to thank our faculty reviewers for volunteering their time and expertise to ensure that both accurate and opportune research was presented to the public.

Congratulations to all of our published authors, especially Natalie Petruzelli for being this year’s recipient of the Provost’s Award for Best Paper!

We hope that you enjoy this 23rd volume of The Review.

Emma Bartholomay ‘22 and Emma Riesel ‘24
Co-Editors in Chief, The Review



Editors' Note
Emma Bartholomay and Emma Riesel


The Physician Suicide Crisis
Christian J. Leonardo

Cover Image, The Review, 2022


Emma Bartholomay, '22
Emma Riesel, '24

Current: Prof. Fionnuala Regan, English Dept.

Taylor Calisto
Alexis Ceiri
Alyssa Falbo
Zoe Haines
Gracie Jacob
Ashley Lippa
Francesca Schmitt
Maria Wild

Dr. Kylene Abraham, Nursing
Dr. Melissa Bourne, Nursing
Dr. Lisa J. Cunningham, Women and Gender Studies
Dr. Edward Freeman, Biology
Dr. Ryan Gantner, Mathematics, Computer Science, & Statistics
Dr. Tricia K. Gatlin, Nursing
Dr. Terence Gipson, Sociology & Public Health
Dr. Ozge Kantas-Yorulmazlar, Psychology
Dr. Linda MacCammon, Religious Studies
Dr. Kimberly McClure Brenchley, Psychology
Dr. Heather McGrane Minton, Nursing
Dr. Marcie McMahon, Nursing
Dr. Timothy Madigan, Philosophy
Dr. Guillermo Montes, Education
Dr. Dawn Rager, Psychology
Dr. Marta Rodríguez-Galán, Sociology, Anthropology, & Public Health
Dr. Robert Ruehl, Philosophy
Dr. Cassandra Scherr, English
Dr. Jane Snyder, Political Science
Dr. Jill Swiencicki, English

The editorial staff of The Review would also like to thank the following people for their support:
Dr. Kevin Railey, Provost
Dr. Ann Marie Fallon, Dean for the School of Arts & Sciences
Ben Hockenberry, Head of Library Systems and Subscriptions
Kourtney Blackburn, Head of Access Services
Kate Torok, Director of Marketing & Communications
Jeremy Luke, Print Services
Logo designed by Ashley Flanagan
Cover photo by John Smillie Photography