Date of Award/Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

M.S. in Advanced Practice Nursing

First Supervisor

Nancy Wilk

Second Supervisor

McGrane Winton


Objectives: To determine the effect of being exposed to music during a colonoscopy on fentanyl and versed requirements in adult patients at an outpatient gastrointestinal clinic when compared to standardized care.

Design: A triple blind randomized controlled trial.

Setting: The study took place at a large medical center in Upstate New York.

Interventions: Comparing the amounts of sedative medications administered in those who were exposed to music therapy and those who were not during a routine colonoscopy.

Main Outcome Measures: The amounts of fentanyl and versed that were administered during a colonoscopy.

Results: The total number of patients was 101; 54.4% listened to music and 45.5% did not. There was a significant difference in the amount of fentanyl administered between those who were exposed to music compared to those who did not (t(99)= -2.85, p(99)= -2.97, p<0.005).

Conclusions: The amounts of both fentanyl and versed were reduced in those who had music playing during their colonoscopy when compared to those who did not. Music therapy is a safe and cost effective intervention that can be used as adjunct therapy during conscious sedation procedures such as colonoscopies.

Included in

Nursing Commons