Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Executive Leadership

First Supervisor

Byron Hargrove, Ph.D.

Second Supervisor

Arleen Hogan, Ph.D.


Historically, American compulsory education laws have mandated youth to attend public or state-accredited private schools in accordance with individually state selected ages. In order to ensure compliance with longstanding national and state education goals for youth, present-day federal and state education agencies charge K-12 leadership to school district superintendents and school building principals. Thus the quality of the leadership dynamic between K-12 superintendents and the principals they supervise is important to national and state goals of an educated American youth. However, despite the racial and ethnic diversity of American school children and teacher, principal, and superintendent populations, K-12 leadership research of effective practices is majorly authored from homogeneous White leadership (e.g., superintendent) points-of-view. Further, the sparse existing K-12 leadership research from principal perspectives are predominantly from states specific studies and majority White principal populations. Therefore, the purpose of this national quantitative descriptive study was to expand K-12 leadership research to include Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) principal viewpoints from multiple states regarding leadership practices of their superintendents. This study utilized transformational (exemplary practices) and muted group theories as theoretical frameworks along with Kouzes and Posner’s Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) as the research instrument. The 85 U.S. BIPOC K-12 principal survey participants rated their superintendents’ overall leadership behaviors on the LPI as 6.17 (from 1-10) which is the rating equivalent of “Sometimes” occurring. Future research should continue to “unmute” diverse K-12 principal leadership perspectives and future practice should include creating national policies for standardized superintendent professional practices and certifications.

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