Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Executive Leadership

First Supervisor

Dr. Anthony P. Chiarlitti

Second Supervisor

Dr. Noelle Beale


In the spring of 2020, schools closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, teachers had to pivot from in-person instruction to emergency remote instruction. The 2020/2021 school year found schools transitioning to hybrid instruction. Teachers worked with a group of students in the classroom while simultaneously working with students online. This descriptive phenomenological qualitative study aimed to describe Lower Hudson Valley, New York, K-5 public school teachers' perceptions of readiness and their experiences using technology for remote and hybrid instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic. Twelve teachers participated in semi-structured interviews to share their perceptions and experiences using technology for emergency remote and hybrid instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study found that teachers felt unprepared to use technology to teach emergency remote and hybrid instruction. Teachers also said that ambiguity from administrators contributed to their lack of readiness. The results found that teachers faced numerous challenges using technology to implement emergency and remote instruction. Despite the challenges, teachers found ways to make emergency remote and hybrid instruction work. Recommendations include creating a district technology integration plan, maintaining communication tools used during the emergency and hybrid remote instruction, and providing trauma-informed professional development for teachers. Suggestions for future studies include researching the impact of COVID-19 on new and special education teachers and researching what changes district administrators have made since returning to school.

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