Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Executive Leadership

First Supervisor

Melissa Moore, EdD

Second Supervisor

Susan Vickers, EdD


The purpose of this study was to examine eight elementary school principals’ leadership characteristics to address their students’ social and emotional well-being before, at the start of, and during the COVID-19 pandemic, using data gathered through semi-structured interviews. The participants of this study came from urban, suburban, and rural elementary schools. A new conceptual model entitled forecasted leadership emerged through a constant comparative method, using a grounded theory methodology with a four-phase coding model. The forecasted leadership model is described within four core categories and 14 key themes. The dimensions and properties of each category are included. This study concluded that elementary school leaders who possess the four characteristics of forecasted leadership will have a potentially positive impact on their students’ overall social and emotional well-being.

Although New York State has developed SEL benchmarks and a guidance document for K-12 schools to support their implementation of SEL, policies on SEL have not been developed, and developing policies on SEL is highly recommended. Also, further research on the creation of SEL policies is needed and policies on response measures for socioeconomically disadvantaged children and their families should be investigated.

The findings of this study proved that SEL instruction, combined with a supportive environment, can enrich a child’s development beyond the duration of their intervention. Therefore, research on SEL screenings for each child upon entering school could help shape plans and implementations for not only individual students, but entire school communities.

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