Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Executive Leadership

First Supervisor

Jason Berman

Second Supervisor

Tim Franz


Employee substance use has impacted organizational structure, resulting in problems such as poor performance, absenteeism, financial loss and workers compensation claim cost as a result of safety risks. Driven by federal and state legislation to provide a safe and healthy work environment, employers have implemented non-integrated and integrated deterrence/support programs for reducing the harmful effects of employee drug use. The problem that was addressed by the current study is that organizations face a legal obligation to address employee substance use and must also do so to protect their financial solvency. The hypotheses for the current study pertained to whether there was a qualitative difference between integrated and non-integrated programming for deterring employee drug use. The method for the present study was a systematic review of existing empirical studies using a simple weighted analysis of effect. Integrated programs showed effect in all categories, with the most significant effect showing in the reduction of substance use, which was the primary aim of the programs. Although integrated programs showed impact in all categories of effect, non-integrated deterrence programs showed most significant effect (0.47) for overall program effectiveness compared to integrated (0.17) and non-integrated supports (0.26) programming. The implications are that while integrated programming presented most notable effect for decreased substance use and non-integrated deterrence programs was the most effective program overall. The data does not allow for definite evidence for a significant finding in these areas of effect. Prudence is warranted when interpreting these findings.

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