Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Executive Leadership

First Supervisor

Jeff Wallis

Second Supervisor

Winsome Gregory


The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental, ex post facto study was to examine the impact the Response to Intervention (RTI) framework had on kindergarten reading scores as measured by the standardized test for the achievement of reading early literacy assessment (STAR-ELA). This study employed an ex post facto design utilizing a retrospective cohort. Two 2 × 2 mixed-subjects factorial analysis of variances (ANOVAs) were used in addressing the study’s three research questions. First, the study evaluated the combined effectiveness of Tier 1 and Tier 2 reading interventions on nonclassified kindergarten students’ reading achievement to determine if the implementation of RTI impacted the reading scores of kindergarten students. Findings reveal that Tier 1 and Tier 2 RTIs were effective in enhancing students’ reading scores. Second, the study compared the efficacy of Tier 1 and Tier 2 interventions separately to determine if there was any relationship between the type of RTI employed and the resulting improvements in reading achievement. Findings show that Tier 2 students exhibited significantly greater improvement than Tier 1 students. Finally, this study investigated the potential role of gender in moderating the effect of Tier 2 interventions on reading achievement. The data examined displayed that both males and females in Tier 2 RTI showed approximately equal and statistically significant gains in STAR-ELA scores. Recommendations are that further studies should include students who are classified with an individualized education plan, in addition to English language learners, to reveal how interventions can be effective with different populations. In addition, further research should be conducted on Tier 3 interventions.

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