Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Executive Leadership

First Supervisor

C. Michael Robinson

Second Supervisor

Idonia Owens


An exploratory, sequential, mixed-methods study examined the extent to which teachers of English, math, science, and social studies of Grades 9-12 change classroom practices based upon the implementation of the Annual Professional Performance Review (APPR) mandated by New York State Education Law §3012-c. Qualitative data in phase one of the study informed the survey in phase two. Critical components of classroom practice were identified in a focus group where five lead evaluators organized the study into two themes: lesson planning and classroom atmosphere. A second focus group of six teachers identified 20 impetuses that promote changes in classroom instructional practice. The survey received 292 responses from teachers, of which 86 met the criteria to fully participate. Lesson planning was identified as the area where teachers made the most changes during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 school years. Collaboration with peers within their own district was identified as the primary impetus by teachers to change practice. APPR was ninth on the list of impetuses for changing practice. Understanding what drives teachers to change practice provides districts with the knowledge necessary for guiding teachers to fully develop classroom instructional strategies.

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