Date of Award/Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

MS in Literacy Education




The purpose of this study was to determine effective instructional tools that teachers can utilize to help plan instruction so that nonverbal students with multiple disabilities can acquire literacy skills in the classroom. One student, Trinity, who is nonverbal and has been diagnosed with Chiari malformation, was assessed using a variety of formal (Peabody Nonverbal Picture Vocabulary Assessment (Form A)), and informal assessment tools (interviews and teacher-made literacy assessments) to determine what literacy skills she possesses. The findings suggest that Trinity possesses a variety of receptive and expressive literacy skills typical of other children her age. Teachers just need the resources to help determine what literacy skills students with multiple disabilities possess and the necessary tools to help these students reach their full potential.

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